|B & H Photo
|National Geographic Field guide
||ACDSee, Paint Shop Pro, Microsoft Digital Image, Adobe Photoshop
||Adobe Photoshop, Photo Edges
Photography Training Tips
Join a photography club and participate in their activities.
Learn how to shoot manually or priority - Even though you enjoy
shooting on "program" or "automatic", understand
f-stops, shutter speeds, exposure, and depth-of-field for those
difficult or unusual situations.
Get close - do not allow too much dead space in the frame.
Use a tripod or a monopod - especially in low light or when using
a telephoto lenses or doing macro photography. Even the smallest
movements of the camera while the shutter is open can translate
to inferior quality.
Understanding lighting - natural and artificial - use of flash,
both indoors and outdoors.
Practice on composition - Try different angles and focal lengths
and move around, get down low, climb up higher, and see the difference
in the outcome.
Know about filters. Using a "polarizing" filter, for
example cuts glare and reflections, removes the glare from windows,
and deepens the colors of landscapes as well as coats of animals.
Understand why you should take a photo gray card along with you
Have fun - Do not get so serious that you forget to have fun.
Play around, try different things, and do not be afraid to have
a bunch of throwaways.
Read your camera manual and keep it in your camera bag for quick
Set digital camera setting for highest JPEG resolution - Takes
fewer, but better quality photos from memory card.
Don't think that having the subject in the middle is better.
Know the "Rule of Thirds" guide.
Simply put, the shutter speed of a camera is a number which represents
the amount of time the shutter remains open to let
the light through the lens for proper exposure, to stop the action
,or to create movement in it.
COMMON SHUTTER SPEEDS
1/1000, 1/500, 1/250, 1/100, 1/60, 1/30, 1/15, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2,
Shutter speeds are normally listed in your camera without the
fraction and can far exceed the 1/1000 speed. REMEMBER, the shutter
speed is measured by a fraction of a SECOND. One (1) second is
just that. The B setting allows the lens to remain open as long
as we like (over 1 second) by using a cable release or remote
and a sturdy tripod - good tool for night photography.
"Slower" shutter speeds as 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/15 lets
more light in because the shutter is open for a longer length
of time. "Slower" shutter speeds can also be used to
create movement, such as in the angel hair/smoky looking water
of a waterfall or rapid river. "Faster" shutter speeds
as 1/1000, 1/500, 1/250 stops the action of fast moving subjects
as race car, cyclist and a runner because the picture is recorded
The size of the aperture, or opening of the camera lens, controls
the amount of light entering the camera. F stops are located on
a movable ring around the lens. One can see a series of numbers
indicating these stops on the ring ranging from 1.4 to 22 - and
sometimes as high as 32 or 64. REMEMBER, the lower the "f"
number, the larger the lens opening. Point and shoot cameras often
have their f stops pre-set in the factory or only have one or
two f stops.
EXPOSURE is the amount of light needed to create
the image. Too much light causes overexposure, and too little
light causes underexposure. From the above, we know that shutter
speed control the amount of time that light passes through the
lens and that aperture or f stops control the amount of light
by size of the lese opening. These 2 factors are set automatically
by modern cameras.
It is important to go off "automatic" or "program"
for those certain situations, which will also allow one to become
more creative and make less mistakes. With the modern camera,
many photographers no longer shoot in manual mode which requires
both f stop and shutter speed to be set. They either shoot in
shutter priority or aperture priority.
Shutter Priority - is that mode which the camera's
controls will pick out the proper f stop required when we set
our own shutter speed.
Aperture Priority - is that mode which the camera's
controls will pick out the proper shutter speed when you choose
the f stop.
USING SHUTTER PRIORITY - (ONLY SETTING YOU NEED TO MAKE)
Shutter Speed "S"
||Waterfall - let water flow
||Water - Freezing or stopping flow
||Bright & sunny day, moon shots
||Outdoor Christmas Lights
USING APERTURE "F STOP" PRIORITY - "S" -
(ONLY SETTING YOU NEED TO MAKE)
Excellent setting for "Depth of Field" which fades
The smaller the aperture "f stop" (larger the number
i.e. f 22) more background fades and foreground highlighted
Experiment with f 22, f 16, and f 11 for that right photograph
For better exposure, take the guesswork out by carrying something
that has been proven to be a mid-tone - a photographic gray card
(a sheet of gray cardboard with a matted finish that is guaranteed
to reflect 18 percent of the light) is ideal. Set up the card
near the primary subject, and move in close to take the light
reading from the card . Find the shutter speed and aperture combination
that the meter indicates, and you will get a correct exposure.
Without a gray card, one can point the lens to a mid-tone area
and meter the same as above.
NOTE: Some say that the average scenes reflects 13 percent, not
18 percent of the light that falls on it. If that be the case,
one should increase exposure by a half stop (+0.5 compensation
factor) for most subjects. If the subject is very light as snow
or sand, decrease exposure by a half stop (-0.5 compensation factor).